History of Arakan
Dr. Thant Myint U, a Burmese historian, the grandson of U Thant, the former UN Secretary-General writes: In ancient times, Arakan was very much an extension of India [Dr. Thant Myint U, 2006, 72]. Furthermore, scholars say that before and after the Christian era, until the 10th century AD, the people and civilization in Arakan came from India first. So-called Dannya Vadi and Vesali dynasties in Arakan were Indian. Only in about 11th century a branch of Tibeto-Barman [current Rakhine] of Bagan conquered Arakan and governed the plain. After that, they remained dominant in Arakan till Burma occupied Arakan in 1785. The relation of Arakan with India then (Bengal) was very close to that. Please see The book [Ancient Arakan written by Dr. Pamela Gutman in 1976].
History of Rohingya
Rohingyas are a people with distinct culture and civilization of their own. Rohingyas are neither immigrants nor invaders in Myanmar but the native of the soil of Arakan, which is part of Myanmar now. In fact, it is Burma who occupied the Land of Rohingya and Rohingyas are made stateless, homeless today. They have been living in Arakan, western part of Burma/Myanmar from time immemorial.
According to history, Rohingya’s are the original inhabitants of Arakan. Arakan was the land of their ancestors located west of Burma. Rohingya’s are descendants of Moorish [Moren is the name for the Islamic population of medieval Spain]. The Moors were mainly North African Berbers and Arabs. Arabs and Persian who were the first Muslims on the Rohang / Arakan coast as traders arriving between the 9th and 15th centuries. Some of them had stayed and married to local women. Their descendants became the ancestors of another hybrid race, which later became known as the Rohingya. Please see the book [“Burma in Revolt by Bertil Lintner” page 45, December 1, 1999]. The military rule of Myanmar (Burma) abolished citizenship of Rohingyas in 1982, thus they become victims of political oppression, economic exploitation and cultural slavery in their ancestral land. Eventually they became the victim of genocide.
Rohingya Persecution and Exoduses since Burma’s Independent:
- Military Operation ( 5th Burma Regiment ) November 1948
- Burma Territorial Force (BTF) Operation 1949-1950
- Military Operation (2nd emergency Chin Regiment) 1951-1952
- Mayu Operation October 1952-1953
- Moene-Thone Operation October 1954
- Combined Immigration & Army Operation January 1955
- Union Military Police (UMP) Operation 1955-1958
- Captain Htin Kyaw Operation 1959
- Shwe Kyi Operation October 1966
- Kyi Gan Operation October-December 1966
- Ngazinka Operation 1967-1969
- Myat Mon Operation February 1969-1971
- Major Aung Than Operation 1973
- Sabbe Operation February 1974-1978
- Naga Min ( King Dragon ) Operation 1978-1979
- Shwe Hintha Operation August 1978-1980
- Galone Operation 1979
- Pyi Thaya Operation July 1991-1992
- NaSaKa Operation 1992
- Genocidal Campaigns Sine June 2012
Rohingya population which once stood 3.5 million has shrunk to 1 million due to severe persecutions through ethnic cleansing and genocidal campaigns. The UN earlier considers them the most persecuted people of the World, now UN describes Rohingya as a people facing Ethnic Cleansing. Many experts, Scholars and many Heads of Governments, including France President Emmanuel Macron says a Genocide.